TAG Videos | Scoop-Channel-Reduce

 


Video Source | The Architecture Gazette | Sustinble Snippets

Music Source | “My Best Melody” catatau5 | Link

Data Sources |

  1. CTBUH. CapitaGreen – The Skyscraper Center. https://bit.ly/2G1NuOL. Accessed July 8, 2018.
  2. GreenA Consultants. Capitagreen:: GreenA Consultants. https://bit.ly/2SsiHvT. Accessed July 8, 2018.
  3. CapitaLand Commercial Trust. CapitaGreen | CapitaLand Commercial Trust. https://bit.ly/2AOGPBJ. Accessed July 8, 2018.

 

Scoop-Channel-Reduce

CapitaGreen is a 82,000 sq.m., 43-floor skyscraper in the Central Business District of Singapore1. The Video looks at its design for Sustainable Ventilation.

45 m1 tall Wind-Catchers atop the skyscraper are oriented towards the prevailing wind direction2. Designed to scoop winds at this elevation, they channel air down a core known as the ‘Cool Void’3. Air from the cool void spreads horizontally through the levels, reducing Air-Conditioning loads.

Read the whole article here


Video Source:

The Architecture Gazette | Sustinble Snippets

Music Source:

“My Best Melody” catatau5 | Link

Data Sources:

  1. CTBUH. CapitaGreen – The Skyscraper Center. http://www.skyscrapercenter.com/building/capitagreen/13978. Accessed July 8, 2018.
  2. GreenA Consultants. Capitagreen:: GreenA Consultants. http://www.greenaconsultants.com/our-work/capitagreen/. Accessed July 8, 2018.
  3. CapitaLand Commercial Trust. CapitaGreen | CapitaLand Commercial Trust. http://www.cct.com.sg/our-properties/singapore/capitagreen/. Accessed July 8, 2018.

E@BS 4/5: Residential – Skyville@Dawson

This is Segment 4 of our Chain of posts focused on ‘Energy @ the Building Scale’.
[Extension of Part 4/5: The Red System (Energy), Singapore – Published: 28th May 2018]

clusters editted
Plan diagrams showing Apartments Clusters

Skyville@Dawson is a 111,106 sq.m., 48-storey1 public housing project by WOHA Architects in Queenstown, Singapore. It is one of two Build-To-Order (BTO) projects commissioned by Singapore’s Housing Development Board (HDB), as part of their “Remaking Our Heartland” initiative (the other being SkyTerrace@Dawson by SCDA Architects)4. This “housing-in-a-park” concept would show transferability in future projects and towns like – Waterway Terraces, Bidadari, Punggol Northshore, Tampines North6. It is the first housing development to be awarded the GreenMark Platinum Rating10. Skyville@Dawson’s Sustainable Design features including Passive Strategies are elaborated below-

Contents

  1. MASSING AND CONFIGURATION
    • Orientation
    • Clustering and Modules
  2. FORM, DAYLIGHT, VENTILATION
    • Unit Thickness
    • Breathability – Horizontal Air Movement
    • Breathability – Vertical Air Movement
  3. INTEGRATION WITH GREEN AND BLUE
    • Horizontal Green
    • Site Integration with Green and Blue
  4. BUILDING ENVELOPE

1) MASSING AND CONFIGURATION

Orientation

(i) The Building is placed with its longer facades facing the North-South9 directions. This reduces exposure to the East and West directions, that are normally difficult to shade.

shadow studies
Shading Studies for Skyville@Dawson

Clustering and Modules

(i) 8 apartments in plan(as seen in Plan diagrams above), surround a courtyard. This cluster is repeated 2 more times, to create 3 sets of apartments enclosing courtyards. This configuration also provides self-shading, especially from low angle rays from the East and West directions (as seen in the Shadow Studies above).

(ii) In Elevation, 12 clusters form villages, each comprising of 80 apartments.

villages with border
Perspective diagrams showing Apartment Villages

(iii) The apartment layouts are column and beam free4. This provides the possibility of 3 layouts for residents – reducing wastage, allowing flexibility for multiple functions, family size and the future.

(iv) For standardization, efficiency and to reduce wastage, only 5 window types2  have been used in the entire development.

(v) The design uses precast and prefabricated10 elements to avoid errors and reduce wastage. This feature could also contribute towards LEED BD+C v4 CreditConstruction and Demolition waste management. 

 ↑ Go to Contents ↑


2) FORM, DAYLIGHT, VENTILATION

Unit Thickness

(i) The individual apartments are approximately 11 meters across in width, thus applying the Unit Thick Principle. Apartments also have openings in all directions. They are thus naturally ventilated and day lit, reducing artificial cooling and lighting costs.

unit thick
Plan diagram showing Unit Thick apartment blocks

Breathability – Horizontal Air Movement

(i) The clustering arrangement around courtyards, and the repetition of this module linearly, enables horizontal air circulation.

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Plan diagram showing Horizontal air movement through courtyards and building block gaps

(ii) Common areas (Lobbies, Corridors, Staircases) and Apartments are naturally ventilated. Many units have not installed Air-conditioning3.

Breathability – Vertical Air Movement

(i) With minimal obstructions and the creation of Canyon like spaces, air moves vertically through the towers – accentuating the breezy atmosphere. The interaction of this air with greenery from sky gardens at intermediate levels, cools this air through evapotranspiration.

vertical air movt
Section diagram showing Vertical air movement through the towers

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3) INTEGRATION WITH GREEN AND BLUE

Horizontal Green

(i) ‘Sky Terraces’7 are located every 12 floors. These are designed as community spaces, where people can collect to interact with neighbors or simply visit to relax and enjoy the lush greenery.

hori greenery
Sky Gardens and Rooftop Garden

(ii) A ‘Sky Park’7 on the roof has planters, hedges, and beautiful city views. Photovoltaics3 power the common area lighting.

Site Integration with Green and Blue

(i) A 150 m long bio-swale (gently sloping ditch with specific plants) filters and treats site stormwater before discharging it into the city drainage system5. Another example of a bio-swale – water treatment and recycling loop can be seen in Kampung Admirality.

site green blue
Site Plan diagram showing location of Parks, Plaza and Bio-swale

(ii) The site is an ungated3 community, with Public Parks and Amenities that cater to the residents as well as the general public.

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4) BUILDING ENVELOPE

(i) Monsoon windows8 on the facade can be kept open during rains, thus providing cool breeze without wind-blown rain entering the home. A similar more advanced Monsoon Window design is utilized in another high-rise residential building – 1 Moulmein Rise, Singapore.

(ii) The walls on the facade have horizontal and vertical sunbreakers5. Balconies or horizontal ledges9 are used to provide shading for openings.

(iii) Double-height verandas10 on the ground level provide pleasant public spaces overlooking the parks.

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That’s all for today! We hope you enjoyed this segment. As always, we would love to hear your thoughts, suggestions, queries, opinions.

Thank you!

See you next week.


Credits:
Graphics : Selected graphics are produced as part of a team project for M.Sc. Integrated Sustainable Design at National University of Singapore (Building Semester – Stage 1 – Complex Living Systems). Group Members – Gajender Kumar Sharma, Aditi Bisen, Huang Hongbo, Zhao Yanming
Text: Aditi Bisen


References/ Additional Reading:

  1. CTBUH. SkyVille @ Dawson – The Skyscraper Center. http://www.skyscrapercenter.com/building/skyville-dawson/14117. Accessed July 18, 2018.
  2. Furuto A. SkyVille @ Dawson / WOHA. ArchDaily. https://www.archdaily.com/215386/skyville-dawson-woha. Published 2012. Accessed July 18, 2018.
  3. ArchDaily. SkyVille / WOHA. https://www.archdaily.com/800832/skyville-woha. Published 2017. Accessed July 18, 2018.
  4. HISTORYSG. SkyVille@Dawson and SkyTerrace@Dawson are launched – Singapore History. http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/history/events/734a75df-6ece-410f-a1f5-3d0453daf2fe. Published 2015. Accessed July 18, 2018.
  5. Australian Design Review. An exploration in affordable housing: Skyville @ Dawson. https://www.australiandesignreview.com/architecture/an-exploration-in-affordable-housing-skyville-dawson/. Published 2016. Accessed July 19, 2018.
  6. Zachariah NA. Dawson’s SkyVille and SkyTerrace projects are raising the bar for stylish public housing. The Straits Times. https://www.straitstimes.com/lifestyle/home-design/dawsons-skyville-and-skyterrace-projects-are-raising-the-bar-for-stylish. Published 2015. Accessed July 19, 2018.
  7. Willis C. The Skyscraper Museum: GARDEN CITY | MEGA CITY: WOHA rethinks cities for the age of global warming. http://skyscraper.org/EXHIBITIONS/WOHA/skyville.php. Accessed July 24, 2018.
  8. Pearson CA. SkyVille@Dawson|Gardens in the Sky. Architectural Record. https://www.architecturalrecord.com/articles/7925-skyvilledawson. Published 2013. Accessed July 24, 2018.
  9. BCA Singapore. BCA GreenMark Buildings Directory | Skyville @ Dawson. https://www.bca.gov.sg/green_mark/KnowledgeResources/BuildingDirectoryDetail.aspx?id=255. Accessed July 26, 2018.
  10. world-architects. SkyVille @ Dawson WOHA. https://www.world-architects.com/en/woha-singapore/project/skyville-dawson. Accessed July 26, 2018.

Addressing East and West Facades

Sustainable Snippets

These faces of the building are difficult to shade, as they receive low angle rays from the rising and setting sun. Common shading features such as horizontal projections, usually fail in such situations. Our 3 case-studies explain methods to address these tricky areas of the building.

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Addressing East, West Facades; Graphics: Credits below
  1. Park Royal – The East, West facades are shaded using self-shading, achieved due to the E-shape projections from the Plan.
  2. CapitaGreen – Of all the vertical green on the facade, larger amount of greenery is provided on the East, West facades to shade them.
  3. Cleantech One – Sky gardens and planters on these facades help cool the labs and create pleasant breakout spaces.

Credits:
Graphics : All graphics are produced as part of a team project for M.Sc. Integrated Sustainable Design at National University of Singapore (Building Semester – Stage 1 – Complex Living Systems). Group Members – Gajender Kumar Sharma, Aditi Bisen, Huang Hongbo, Zhao Yanming
Text: Aditi Bisen

E@BS 3/5: Commercial – CapitaGreen

This is Segment 3 of our Chain of posts focused on ‘Energy @ the Building Scale’.
[Extension of Part 4/5: The Red System (Energy), Singapore – Published: 28th May 2018]

CapitaGreen

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CapitaGreen in the Central Business District of Singapore [Image via GreenA Consultants, Singapore]
CapitaGreen is a 82,000 sq.m. GreenMark Platinum building. It is a 43-floor skyscraper in the Central Business District of Singapore designed by Architect – Toyo Ito (2). It is at less than 10-minutes walk, South-East from Park Royal, Pickering – our previous project under study. The Skyscraper has multiple sustainable features as elaborated below; which lead to energy savings of around 4.5 GWh /year (1).

Continue reading “E@BS 3/5: Commercial – CapitaGreen”

Q & A – 1

We interrupt the ongoing Chain of posts on E@BS to introduce our ‘Q & A’ column.

Our segment on Cleantech One [published: June 18, 2018] left us with 2 questions. We address one of them today –

Q) Integration with Green has positive effects on micro-climate and energy loads. However, landscaping has associated water and maintenance costs. There are also issues of insects that may not always be welcome in an urban/ strictly controlled setting like that of laboratories. What do you think about this?

A) Water and Maintenance Costs

Water use can be optimized and maintenance can be reduced by adopting certain simple measures. Some of the following have been adopted by our case-studies, specially Park Royal Hotel [published June 25th, 2018]. These measures also help buildings gain points for LEED certification categories – Water Efficiency, Sustainable Sites.

Reduction of Need (Water and Maintenance)

  • Selection of Plant Species – Native plants that are local to the site are adapted best to existing conditions. They are thus hardy and require little to no maintenance. Many species can also survive, without any external irrigation.
  • Rainwater Harvesting – Storage, treatment an recycling of rainwater for landscape irrigation helps reduce the requirement for Potable water use. In Park Royal, rainwater from upper floors, irrigates plants on lower floors by gravity.

Supplemental measures

  • Non – Potable water – If additional water is needed, then non-potable water recycled from site or outside, can be utilized. For example in Park Royal Hotel, recycled wastewater called NEWater is used for additional irrigation needs.
  • Drip Irrigation – If supplemental irrigation is required, then drip irrigation is an extremely efficient option. Compared to overhead spray irrigation (efficiency 50-70 per cent), drip irrigation can provide water use efficiencies of greater than 90 per cent. There are multiple other benefits of this type of irrigation which make it an indisputable choice. Various small villages, farmers and projects in India are benefiting from this technology. Some benefits include –
    • Efficiency – There is reduction of  evaporative losses and as water is delivered through pipes, to the plants as they need it.
    • Yield – Farmers in the states of Andhra Pradesh (Anantapur district, Chilli Crop) and Tamil Nadu (Tuberose flowers) in India for example, have seen crop yields double by adopting drip irrigation. This is possible since water along with fertilisers or required chemicals can be delivered to the plants ina precise manner, thus improving plant health.
    • Weeds – Weeds are reduced since the area between plants is not irrigated.
    • Runoff – Runoff , Erosion and related Pollution is prevented.
  • Sensors – Landscape areas could have rain sensors, that signal to turn off irrigation, when a minimum level of rainfall is achieved (d).

 

B) Insects

Insects or pests can be attracted to areas of vegetation and water. While all insects are not harmful, and many are extremely helpful and necessary for the ecosystem; they may not always be welcome in an urban/ strictly controlled setting like that of a laboratory. Let’s look at some ways to deal with this issue –

Pests around water features

Pests specially mosquitoes can be a dangerous problem around water features. Some steps that could be taken to guard against this are-

  • Design water features deeper than 2 feet, since larvae prefer shallow water bodies.
  • Use fountains or waterfalls, which increase circulation of water and reduce stagnant water.
  • Natural predators like dragonflies and back-swimmers help get rid of mosquito larvae. Care should be taken to avoid broad spectrum insecticides, which could kill these helpful creatures.
  • Remove organic debris, which is food for larvae – Pond Skimmers are useful contraptions for larger water bodies. For smaller water features, use pond skimmer nets. Pond spikes are good for preventing algal blooms.

Pest repellent Plant species

Another simple way is to choose plant species that naturally repel certain pests. This helps avoid the use of harmful insecticides and pesticides, that have other dire consequences. Some low maintenance species to choose from are –

  • Lavender – This plant has a lovely fragrance for humans. However, it repels mosquitoes, insects and smaller animals like rabbits. It is a tough drought-resistant plant and does well in warmer climates.
  • Citronella Grass – It has a lemony scent and is a common ingredient for mosquito repellents. It is a low maintainence plant and only requires a sunny spot in the ground in warm climates.
  • Marigolds – Their smell deters not only mosquitoes, but also aphids,  whiteflies, squash bugs,   thrips, tomato hornworms, mexican bean beetles. They flower annually and are easily grown in pots.

 


 

References/ Additional Reading:

E@BS Segment 2/7: Commercial – Park Royal Hotel

This is Segment 2 of our Chain of posts focused on ‘Energy @ the Building Scale’.
[Extension of Part 4/5: The Red System (Energy), Singapore – Published: 28th May 2018]

Park Royal hotel

parkroyal
Park Royal Hotel, Pickering, Singapore; Source: b

Park Royal at Pickering is a 7500 sq.m. Hotel in the thick of Singapore’s Central Business District, facing a now famous Hong Lim Park. The hotel has various sustainable features (elaborated below), that lead to approximately 30 per cent (f) energy savings in operation (using a conventional building of similar scale and functions as base case). Due to these features, it has received the GreenMark Platinum rating certification from Singapore’s Building Construction Authority.

 

1) BREATHABILITY

  • Horizontal air movement
  1. Despite being a commercial project, the property shows generosity, by providing a large public interface on the ground floor. This enables Horizontal air flow, thus improving thermal comfort for the area.
  2. The corridors, lobbies and common wash rooms are all naturally ventilated with fresh air (c).
  3. The entrance to the above-ground car park is concealed with plants and is also naturally ventilated.
hori air movement
Plan and section diagrams showing horizontal air movement through Public space; Graphics: Credits below

This natural ventilation in humid Singapore conditions, provides relief to occupants. The breeze, coupled with shading measures, can improve thermal comfort conditions; thus reducing the need for artificial mechanical cooling.

366757f81eaa6f3b3228e2157b040bb9
Public interface on Ground Floor enabling Horizontal air movement; Source: a

Continue reading “E@BS Segment 2/7: Commercial – Park Royal Hotel”

E@BS 2/5: Commercial – Park Royal Hotel

This is Segment 2 of our Chain of posts focused on ‘Energy @ the Building Scale’.
[Extension of Part 4/5: The Red System (Energy), Singapore – Published: 28th May 2018]

Park Royal hotel

parkroyal
Park Royal Hotel, Pickering, Singapore [Image via Nylon Singapore]
Park Royal at Pickering is a 7500 sq.m. Hotel in the thick of Singapore’s Central Business District, facing a now famous Hong Lim Park. The hotel has various sustainable features (elaborated below), that lead to approximately 30 per cent (f) energy savings in operation (using a conventional building of similar scale and functions as base case). Due to these features, it has received the GreenMark Platinum rating certification from Singapore’s Building Construction Authority.

Continue reading “E@BS 2/5: Commercial – Park Royal Hotel”

E@BS Segment 1/7: Industrial – Cleantech One

This is Segment 1 of our Chain of posts focused on ‘Energy @ the Building Scale’.
[Extension of Part 4/5: The Red System (Energy), Singapore – Published: 28th May 2018]

Cleantech One

dev-cleantechone2
Cleantech One at Cleantech Park; Source: b

Cleantech One is a 37,500 sq.m. BCA GreenMark Platinum certified Industrial building. It is a Jurong Town Corporation project that is part of the larger Cleantech Park, which is a 50 hectare site for clean technology activities such as R&D, test-bedding, prototyping. Cleantech One employs state-of-the-art Active technology features, but also integrates Passive design catering to its Climatic context (Singapore).

Singapore has a tropical rainforest climate, with temperatures rarely straying from 29-30 degrees Celsius. Humidity stays high throughout the year and there is regular and heavy precipitation. The effect of temperature can be reduced by strategic shading measures. Cleantech One uses proper orientation, green walls, planters, sky trellis. Humidity is addressed by increasing air movement to provide potential relief to occupants as seen below. These measures reduce dependence on mechanical cooling and thus help decrease Energy costs.

Continue reading “E@BS Segment 1/7: Industrial – Cleantech One”

E@BS 1/5: Industrial – Cleantech One

This is Segment 1 of our Chain of posts focused on ‘Energy @ the Building Scale’.
[Extension of Part 4/5: The Red System (Energy), Singapore – Published: 28th May 2018]

Cleantech One

dev-cleantechone2
Cleantech One at Cleantech Park; Source: b

Cleantech One is a 37,500 sq.m. BCA GreenMark Platinum certified Industrial building. It is a Jurong Town Corporation project that is part of the larger Cleantech Park, which is a 50 hectare site for clean technology activities such as R&D, test-bedding, prototyping. Cleantech One employs state-of-the-art Active technology features, but also integrates Passive design catering to its Climatic context (Singapore). Continue reading “E@BS 1/5: Industrial – Cleantech One”

Energy @ the Building Scale (E@BS)

This post is an Introduction, that leads to a chain of articles in the coming weeks, focusing on Energy @ the Building Scale. We felt this important scale merited further mention [an extension of ‘Part 4/5: The Red System (Energy), Singapore’ – Published: 28th May 2018].  These articles are also part of our effort to explore and possibly prove that ‘Passive strategies’ for Architecture are still vital for Energy efficiency and Sustainability in today’s world.

phx-regional-office-ext
DPR’s Phoenix regional office – North and East facades; Sources: 1, 2

DPR’s Phoenix office cleverly combines passive strategies like Natural Ventilation and daylighting, with Active smart controls to create a Net Zero certified building that also acts as a Living Laboratory. Having achieved this in the harsh hot dry climate of the Sonoran desert, sprouts hope for Passive design.

Continue reading “Energy @ the Building Scale (E@BS)”

Part 5/5: The Red System (Energy), Singapore

This is part of a series of posts based on scripts, written for class presentations during our Masters in Integrated Sustainable Design at National University of Singapore.
The class had to analyse various complex systems in Singapore, as a precursor to the Design problem in Studio. The systems included are – Red (energy), Blue (Water), Green I (Biodiversity), Green II (Food) and Grey (Public Space).
The following posts elaborate on the Red System.

Part 5/5: How can energy be restructured to improve self sufficiency and reduce emissions?

The 4 parts of the series till now outline the existing Energy system of Singapore – its timeline, characteristics, issues. We saw a Sankey diagram in Part 3/5 detailing existing flows and exchanges, while Part 4/5 elaborated on the System Structure at 3 scales.

This final part talks of an ‘After‘ Scenario where we propose a ‘Restructuring‘ to address issues and gaps – to improve self sufficiency and reduce emissions.

The issues at hand which create possible vulnerabilities are –

  • a Gap at the neighborhood scale
  • a largely Centralized system
  • large consumption for air-conditioning loads
  • high dependence on imported fossil fuels

Continue reading “Part 5/5: The Red System (Energy), Singapore”